Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (R.A) has been the greatest interpreter of Islamic philosophy in Persian poetry. He explained Islamic mysticism through his poetry. His Masnavi has been read and taught by Muslim for more than seven hundred years. The real name of Maulana Rum (R.A) was Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Hussain Al-Balkhi. Bahauddin Walad was his father who was also a theologian. He was born at Balkh, a city of Khorasan in 1207 A.D. As his father was called to Rum so Maulana chose Rumi as his pen name. His poetry is very famous and has been translated into many foreign languages.
Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (R.A) got his early education from his home town. He got mastery is all fields of Islamic learning and soon gained popularity as a great scholar. Apart from that, he gained mystic knowledge at the hands of a saint Hazrat Shams Tabraiz (R.A).
The incident of meeting of Shah Shams Tabraiz (R.A) and Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (R.A) is reported differently in history. But it is common to all that once Maulana was teaching his students and a person came. That person was Shah Shams Tabraiz (R.A). Then a miracle happened and Maulana came to know that the person is not a common man but a Wali of Allah. Shah Shams Tabraiz (R.A) so was the spiritual teacher and mentour of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (R.A). After meeting Shah Shams Tabraiz (R.A) the life of Maulana changed completely.
Literary Contribution of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (R.A)
Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (R.A) started explaining the concepts of spiritualism in his ghazals. His Persian Poems (Ghazals) have been collected in Diwan e Kabir. It is also called “Diwan e Shams Tabraiz”.
The greatest literary, spiritual and religious work of Maulana is his Masnavi. Masnavi is a form of poetry in which every concept is written in two verses. Masnavi Maulana Rum contains 24,ooo verses. It contains many deep and delicate concepts of Islamic philosophy and mysticism. It has been taught is religious institutes for centuries.
Hassam uddin known as Hasan was the spiritual disciple of Maulana. He gave the idea that the scholarly poetry of Maulana ought to be compiled. So, Hasan started writing all the verses of Maulana. This work was started in 1258. Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (R.A) devoted most of his time to the compilation of Manavi.
Apart from the work in poem, Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (R.A) has also written in prose. His prose work is given below.
- Fihi ma Fihi
- Majalis e Sab’a
- Makatib (Letters of Maulana)
Maulwia Order of Sufism
Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (R.A) started a new order of sufism known as Maulwia. The silsilah was actually founded by his followers after his death. The maulwia dervesh are popular for their piety, special dressing, music and sam’a. They perform a special type of dance in their gatherings in which they move in a circular pattern. It is said that the purpose of this dance is to create a feeling of Wajdan. It is unclear that how much part of Maulwia thoughts descend from the teachings of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (R.A).
Death and Mausoleum
Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi (R.A) died shortly after the completion of Masnavi. Date of his death is 17th December 1273. His is buried in Qonya where a great mausoleum was built afterwards.