Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi was a great conqueror of his time. 300 years after the conquest of Muhammad Bin Qasim, he made 17 successful attacks on Indian Sub-continent. Every time he gathered a lot of wealth and went back to his home country. He was a Muslim Turkish ruler. At that time India was ruled by a Hindu Raja. He was the son of Sabugtagin who was a great ruler of Ghazni. Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi was a great patron of learning and knowledge. His history is full of events of valor and bravery. He is known as Idol Breaker in history. In the present post a brief life history of Mahmud Ghaznavi is written.
Birth and Early Life
Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi was born in 971 A.D. He was 6 years old when his father Sabugtagin became the ruler of Ghazni. Sultan got an excellent education in his childhood. The memorized the Holy Quran. He read the books of Fiqh, Tafsir and Hadees. In his early age he himself wrote a book on Fiqh.
Sultan participated in battles along with his father at the age of 15. Soon he became popular for his bravery and courage. Sabugtagin made him the ruler of Khorasan. So, right from his early age he got trained as an administrator and general.
History of Attacks of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi on Indian Sub-continent
At the time of Sabugtagin, raja of Northern India named Jaypal had attacked on Ghazni for two times. When Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi succeeded his father at the age of 26, Jaypal attacked Ghazni for third time. Sultan defeated him and made prisoner. Jaypal got emancipation after many promises and after that in shame burnt himself in Chitta (pyres). Jaypal advised his son Anandpal not to fight with Mahmud and to pay him yearly royalty. But Anandpal forgot the last words of his father. He gathered army of many Hindu Rajas and prepared three lac soldiers. But he was defeated again at the hands of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi.
After that many battles were fought between Hindu Rajas and Mahmud. Atlast, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi crossed the desert of Rajputana and conquered Somnath. In every battle, the army of Sultan was fewer as compared to the opponents.
He made Punjab a permanent part of his empire and conquered Somnath Temple in 1026 A.D. According to Sir H.M Elliot, the arrangement of campaigns made by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi on India is as under.
Patron of Art and Learning
Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi was not only a great ruler but also a great patron of art. Notable scholars and great poet remained in his court. He patronized “Firdousi” and got his “Shahnama” completed. Sultan built many Madaris and educational institutes in Ghazni. Every years millions were spent on people with art and wisdom.
Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi was a very soft hearted ruler. He never made any person Muslim by force. He never killed anyone outside the battle field.
Death and Mausoleum
Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi ruled for 33 years (997 – 1030 A.D) and lived for 59 years. He died in 1030 A.D and was succeeded by his son Masud. His mausoleum is situated 3 miles outside the present city of Ghazni. Khusro Malik was the last ruler of Ghaznawid’s dynasty.